双语教学在实中(地理篇)
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双语教学在初中世界地理部分的尝试
作者:陈雪琴    文章来源:乐山市实验中学    点击数:    更新时间:2006-10-17
        地理学是一门综合性学科,是研究地球表层自然要素与人文要素之间相互关系和作用的科学,通过学习,使学生养成正确的人地协调观,可持续发展观,具有全球意识,国际意识,环境意识等。其中,随着世界国际化进程加快,培养出具有国际眼光的中国公民成了地理教学的重要任务之一。不过,如果你仅仅只能用中文表达国际事务,似乎总欠缺点什么,所以如果能在世界地理部分的课堂上部分使用国际上最广泛的语言的来进行交流是最好的,而且孩子们也有一点英语基础,所以我在探索地理教学的新形式——双语教学,这将为地理教学锦上添花。

        双语教学(bilingual teaching),国外称为双语教育(bilingual education)。英国朗曼出版社出版的《朗曼应用语言学词典》所给的定义是:The use of a second or foreign language in school for the teaching of content subjects. 指在学校里运用第二语言或外语教学知识性科目。双语教学源自双语现象(bilingualism)。双语现象指个人或某个语言社区使用两种语言的现象。国家或地区为了维护学生所属族群与主流社会的融汇关系,为了继承、发展种族文化和保持本国或本地区文化的多样性而避免弱势种群文化的消失,也为了受教育者的机会平等,在全部学校或部分学校实行双语教学,比如加拿大的英语+法语,美国的英语+西班牙语,中国少数民族语言+汉语,这都是为了实施国家或地区的语言政策而实施的双语教育。这些国家或地区的学生都讲两种语言:一种是本族语,一种是主流社会的通用语。即把两种语言都作为学习不同科目的教学语言和学习科目。(这类模式由于社会环境的强烈支持,所以相当成功)。另一种双语教育是为了增加学生对所学外语的接触机会而实施的,其目的在于优化目的语的学习环境。具体做法是:用作为目的语的外语教授目的语以外的部分或全部课程。教育部课程教材研究所副研究员王本华认为双语就是将母语以外的另外一种语言直接应用于语言学科以外的其他学科的教学,使第二语言的学习与各学科知识的获取同步。在双语教学中,学科知识的获得是主要目的,同时也是给学习者创造学习和使用第二语言的空间,使学生在掌握学科知识的同时,能够尽可能多地使用需要他们掌握的第二语言。终极目的是为了让学生同时使用母语和第二语言进行思维,能在这两种语言之间根据交际对象和工作环境的需要进行切换,使他们具有跨文化交流的能力,并树立跨文化的意识。

        据了解,现有双语教学的主要模式有:一是渗透型,即在正常的学科教学中适当穿插使用英语——有的是使用一些常规的课堂用语,有的是将一些名词术语讲给学生,并适当辅以汉语解说;二是穿插型,即交替使用中英文两种语言,或以中文为主,在理解中文的基础上适当用英文补充;或以英文为主,在教学的同时,适当辅以汉语解释和说明;三是示范型,即某个学科中,大部分时间是用中文教学,选择一定的内容,用一定的时间用纯英语进行教学;四是选修课型,即开设某个学科的选修课,用纯英语进行教学,或将相关学科整合在一起,设置新的课程,用纯英语进行教学。双语教学要求用正确流利的英语进行知识的讲解,但不绝对排除汉语,避免由于语言滞后造成学生的思维障碍;教师应利用非语言行为,直观、形象地提示和帮助学生理解教学内容,(比如多媒体教学)以降低学生在英语理解上的难度。

        双语教学既完成了学科知识的目标,同时又实现语言目标,所以对培养人才具有重要作用,但是又有讨论说它会对本族文化的掌握产生负面影响,剥蚀学生所属民族的民族自尊心。所以在师资无法保证,学生英语水平不够的情况下,盲目上马是不科学的。因此,我的双语教材取自于世界地理部分,采用美国小学科学教材,而且与英语教材有交叉的内容,以提高语言的准确性,降低语言难度和增加文化认同感。

 以下便是我的实验教案。

Seven Continents and Four Oceans

 

Teaching objectives:

a) Understanding the distribution and areas of the land and ocea

b) Identifying the seven continents and four oceans (name, size, hemispheres, bounderies, shape) to create a world map

Teaching Materials:

a) Computer software: authorware 7.0

b) Geography software: earth explorer 3.0

c) Pictures: Several famous animals, seven respective continents, big world map, small individual map.

Teaching procedure:

Warming up

T: Good morning, boys and girls.

S: Good morning, Mrs chen.

T: Sit down, please.

S: Thank you.

Step 1:  the distribution and areas of the land and ocean

T: Welcome to Geography. Today we are going to be talking about our home.

[Teacher points the globe rotating in the screen]

T: This is our home, a blue planet, is that beautiful?

S: Yes.

T: It is the most beautiful planet of the sun. Could you tell me her English name?

S: Earth.

T: Ok, very good. Many books tell us its English name is earth, but somebody said it is a wrong name, why? why did he say that? (I’d like to give you a hint) When we look up the dictionary, the earth means “land”. Do you known this word? what’s this in chinese?

T: Our planet is only land?

T: Any others? Put up your hands.         

T: Ocean, These blue continuous water, we call it ocean. So somebody said the earth is wrong name, we have kown the ocean is very big, the ocean is bigger than land, so why call her earth, why not call her ocean? Let’s remember a group of number. Please open your geogaraphy text-book and turn to page 5, read the 1 paragraph and find a group of number. How many square kilometers are the land and oceans? Please remember it and tell me.

T:Have you finished it? (who wants to have a try? Is there any volunteers)

S: The areas of land is 149 million kilometers and the areas of ocean is 361 million kilometers. ( the ocean is blue,so I choose blue chalk)

T: How many percent is the oceans?

S:71%

T: How many percent is the land?

S: 29%

T: Good job, so we have known that the ocean is bigger than the land, the land is smaller than ocean, the land is very important, because we live in land, so let’s study land first.

Step2:  the name and location of the continents

1. the name, shape, location

T: Landmasses are the largest pieces of land on Earth. Geographers call these landmasses continents. There are seven continents. Could you tell me what they are? If you have no idea, you can open your English book Junior1 and turn to page 56, and answer my question, what are they? Do you remember them, which continents can you tell me?

S: Asia.

T: which letter is Asia?

S: Letter a.

T: In asia, there is the hignest mountain--Himalaya, any more? which continents can you tell me?

T: (expansion) there is the longest river—Nile river in Africa. Europe is very romatic. Oceania is named because it has many island countries in ocean, so we call it oceania, (ocean+ia). Antarctica, students haven’t learned it, but they have learned relative word “arctic”, (review English book. The polar bear comes from arctic), so we can change this word into opposite word “Antarctica”, because the earth is a ball, is a sphere, so we can’t see the entire Antarctica, let’s look its true shape, It’s like a bird, flying on the south sky.

2.     Paly game: indentify animals associated with continents.

T: We have known all these continents, so let’s play a game. which continents do these animals come from?

(Note: In Arctic, there is a famous animal “polar bear”, In Antarctic, there is another famous animal, penguin. welcome to Antarctica, but it’s very cold, there are many snow and ice. If you like ice, you can come here and jion us, come on, come on. Kangroo comes from Oceania. Giraffe lives in Africa, they love grassland. Panda lives in Asia.)

3. Pratice: (recognize the shape and compare the size according to text-book)

the biggest is asia, the smallest is oceania

4.bounderies pratice: draw a map of world, further reinforce the location

T: I will put these into a world map, but I have some trouble, please help me.

( teacher demonatrates some parts of the continents firstly, then invite students to the front and finish it.) Equator crosses the middle of Africa and the north of South-America, Antarctica is entirely in south hemisphere, North-America and Europe are entirely in nouth hemisphere. Continents are usually surrounded by water? (analize the world map) No, the asia is close to Africa, It’s on the northeast of Afica, the boundery is suez canal. we are friends. In fact, Europe and Asia are separated by land, the Ural Mountains and Ural River, the Caspian Sea, Caucasus mountains, Black Sea. The boundery between North and South America is Panama canal, please circle them, they are  very important.

Step3:  the name and location of the oceans

T: Oceans are the largest areas of water on the earth. There are four oceans

T: If I travel west around the world along the equator, let’s start from Asia. We will meet Indian ocean, Africa, Atlantic ocean there (It looks like letter “s”), South-America, Pacific Ocean, (It covers half past the world),there is only three ocean, the last one is Actic ocean (It’s in the northest of the world).

 Practice:

1.You might swim in this ocean if you live on the east coast of China

2. The largest continent.  It is also connected to Europe.

3. Parts of this ocean are frozen all year long because it is located near the north pole.

4. From South America, travel east across the Atlantic ocean and you will get to this continent

5. How many continents are there?

6. How many oceans are there?

7. We live on this continent.
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